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The State Plane Coordinate System

The State Plane Coordinate System (SPS or SPCS) is a set of 124 geographic zones or coordinate systems designed for specific regions of the United States. Each state contains one or more state plane zones, the boundaries of which usually follow county lines. There are 110 zones in the continental US, with 10 more in Alaska, 5 in Hawaii, and one for Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands. The system is widely used for geographic data by state and local governments. Its popularity is due to at least two factors. First, it uses a simple Cartesian coordinate system to specify locations rather than a more complex spherical coordinate system (the geographic coordinate system of latitude and longitude). By thus ignoring the curvature of the Earth, "plane surveying" methods can be used, speeding up and simplifying calculations. Second, the system is highly accurate within each zone (error less than 1:10,000). Outside a specific state plane zone accuracy rapidly declines, thus the system is not useful for regional or national mapping.

Most state plane zones are based on either a Transverse Mercator projection or a Lambert conformal conic projection. The choice between the two map projections is based on the shape of the state and its zones. States that are long in the east-west direction are typically divided into zones that are also long east-west. These zones use the Lambert conformal conic projection, because it is good at maintaining accuracy along an east-west axis. Zones that are long in the north-south direction use the Transverse Mercator projection because it is better at maintaining accuracy along a north-south axis. The panhandle of Alaska, whose maximum dimension is on a diagonal, uses an Oblique Mercator projection, which minimizes the combined error in the X and Y directions.

All State Plane zones in New Mexico

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County or City SPCS27 Code SPCS83 Code
Bernalillo 13002 3002
Catron 13003 3003
Chaves 13001 3001
Cibola 13003 3003
Colfax 13001 3001
Curry 13001 3001
DeBaca 13001 3001
Dona Ana 13002 3002
Eddy 13001 3001
Grant 13003 3003
Guadalupe 13001 3001
Harding 13001 3001
Hidalgo 13003 3003
Lea 13001 3001
Lincoln 13002 3002
Los Alamos 13002 3002
Luna 13003 3003
McKinley 13003 3003
Mora 13001 3001
Otero 13002 3002
Quay 13001 3001
Rio Arriba 13002 3002
Roosevelt 13001 3001
Sandoval 13002 3002
San Juan 13003 3003
San Miguel 13001 3001
Santa Fe 13002 3002
Sierra 13003 3003
Socorro 13002 3002
Taos 13002 3002
Torrance 13002 3002
Union 13001 3001
Valencia 13002 3002

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